HANS ALBRECHT BETHE

Birth:2, July 1906
Showed How Energy is Produced in Stars Innformation.

Hans Albrecht Bethe was born in Strasbourg. Alsace Larraine. He attended the Gymnasium in Frankfurt from 1915 to 1924. He then studied at the University of Frankfurt for 2 years, and at Munich for 2 and one half years, taking his Ph. D. in theoretical physics with Preefessor Arnold Sommerfeld in July 1928.

He then was a teacher in physics at Frankfurt and at Stuttgart for one semester each. From fall 1929 to fall 1933 his headquarters were the University of Munich where he became Privatdozent in May 1930. During this time he had a travel fellowship of the International Education Board t go t Cambridge, England, In the fall of 1930. And to Rome in the spring terms of 1931 and 1932. In the winter semester of 1932-1933, he held a position as Acting Assistant Professor at the University of Tubingen which he lost due to the advent of the Nazi regime in Germany.


Bethe emigrated to England in October 1933. Bethe’s main work is concerned with the theory of atomic nuclei. Together with Peierls, he developed a theory of the deuteron in 1934 which he extended in 1949. His work on nuclear reactions led Bethe to the invention of the reactions which supply the energy within the stars. the foremost important natural process in brilliant stars is that the carbon-nitrogen cycle, while the sun and fainter stars use mostly the proton-proton reaction. Bethe’s main achievement during this connection was the exclusion of other possible nuclear reactions. The Nobel prize was given for this work, also as his work on nuclear reactions generally .

Bethe is married to the daughter of P.P. Ewald, the well-known x-ray physicist. they need two children, Henry and Monica.

Basic Knowledge of Computer

And the Star is born!                     

Like humans and other living creatures, the celebs also take birth, get older and eventually die. How it's happened?

Star Facts:- The basic of Stellar information
Star born

The galaxy is formed from dust and hydrogen-helium gases, which is understood as interstellar matter. and therefore the region where this matter exists is named nebula. A cloud of interstellar matter starts to contract under its own gravity and matter inside it gets hotter. The central temperature reaches over 1,000,000 degrees, giving rise to a protostar-a stage just before a star. At this high temperature, hydrogen nucleis start to fuse and finally from the protostar, a new born star comes into existence.



Nebula-Birth place of the stars

A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen and plasma. Many nebulae form from the implosion of diffused gas in interstellar space due to this collapse, massive stars form in its centre and surroundings get visible thanks to presence of optical light. Most of the nebulae are diffused nebulae as they're extended and don't contain specific boundaries. There are three kinds of such nebulae: planetary nebula-a nebula seen after red giant and before white dwarf, proto planetary nebula- a nebula seen just before planetary nebula and supernova remnants- a nebula seen after the supernova explosion. Some nebulae are reflection nebulae, which are rich in interstellar dust and seen with blue colour.

Several hundred nebulae are often counted in our galaxy.

A native place of stars

Collection of huge number of stars held together by combined gravitational forces is named stellar systems. In other words they are defined as clusters. Clusters can be of two kinds, one is closed or globular and other is open. A globular cluster can possess tight groups of thousands to millions of old stars while an open cluster does not have any outer limit and contain less than a few hundred young stars within it, sometimes some stars also drift away from the cluster due to their velocity changes because of the surrounding effects. Very often binary systems and star systems also add complexity to the stellar systems.

Stars at their death-bed!

Star Facts:- The basic of Stellar information
Star death


Many stars spend most of their adulthood as red giants. When temperature at the nuclei reaches 200 million degrees, the helium nuclei begin to react to give rise to the heavier elements of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. The energy produced here momentarily stops further contraction of the star. Which are the facts of the stars. The wrapping of thee star is so swollen that the star begins to lose its outer layers, releasing hydrogen gas bubble- a nebula At the centre of the nebula there's always a blue-white star which is that the old nucleus of a really compressed and hot red giant star . After losing the wrapping such stars are referred to as white dwarfs which are made from ice, carbon and oxygen and that they are as big because the Earth. They will start to cool over a period of billions of years and finally will become dark dwarfs like brown dwarfs and black dwarfs. The end of the sun-like stars is that this only. This is all the star information you would hardly know.

Minor Planets and Shooting Stars

Asteroids are known as Minor Planets. Because of enormous gravitational force of the largest planet of the Solar System, the Jupiter, collection of planetesimals could not support the formation of the planet near Jupiter. Hence, these objects lied near Jupiter and referred to as asteroids. Between the Mars and the Jupiter, 5.2 AU from the Sun, one can find asteroid belt in which two groups of asteroids collectively known as Trojan asteroids are found.

Meteoroid may be a small extraterrestrial body that impacts with the planets. While in space, they're referred to as meteoroid and once they strike the Earth’s atmosphere they're referred to as meteors. they're often called “shooting stars” or “falling stars” but they're not in the least a star. they're small bodes made from small rock or metal.


The Number of the stars

With our largest telescopes the number that may be seen visually is increased to 8,00,00,000 whilst those fitted for photography will record many more. The total number of stars that can be photographed by the 100-in, Mount Wilson reflector is 1,50,00,00,000 (world’s largest telescope 60 years back) It has been estimated, however, that there are probably 30,00,00,00,000 stars that would be photographed with an excellent telescope. The colossal number of stars facts, a sun, is indeed awe-inspiring and quite beyond our power of comprehension.

A Geometric representation

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Geometric Representation

Constellation may be a collection of some stars which exhibits regular or some geometric pattern. Our ancestors had identified a unique way to connect the stars in uniform pattern or some shape like a lion, a scorpion or a question mark etc. They used to observe these constellations for measuring time or observing a particular month or a season as in those days clocks were not available. Patterns of the constellations are known to be invariant with respect to time means the distances between the stars usually do not change in a particular constellation so they used these shapes even within the construction of monuments. Pyramids are the simplest example of this type of construction.
In Indian culture, constellations have a unique significance. We all know twelve constellations Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces and their importance in astrology.

A Bright Trail

With the formation of the system , some planetesimals couldn't survive within the interior of the System and that they were ejected out into the Oort cloud the outermost limit of the Solar System. From this region long period comets visit inside the system . Such comets have period of time of 200 years of quite that. Some short period comets visit from Kuiper Belt situated after Neptune. Comets are icy nuclei of water, carbon monoxide gas CO2 compound and methanol. When they approach the sun, surface temperature of the nucleus rises, causing sublimation of ices and ejection of gas and dust. The dust scatters light form the Sun, and these scattered radiations are observed from the Earth  which is known as Coma. Comets have two types of tails; one is dust tail and other is ion tail.

Red Giant

All the stars finish their fully developed life when they consume all the hydrogen in its centre. This happens once they spend all their energy supply, Which up to the present point maintains their stability. At this stage, nucieus can no longer resist the star’s weight and begins to contract. Such contraction rises nucleus’ temperature and causes nuclear reactions in surrounding layer. The energy produced here makes the star’s different layers dilate and cool. The star blows sort of a balloon and becomes reddish. This is what we call a Red Giant.

EDWIN POWELL HUBBLE

Born : 20 November 1889
He discovered that the universe is expanding.

American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble’s (1889-1953) key discovery was his finding that the universe is expanding. Hubble received undergraduate degrees in math and astronomy from the University of Chicago.

Edwin P. Hubble is best known for his determination that the more distant the galaxy, the quicker it moves faraway from Earth. This implied that the universe was expanding and led the thanks to the large Bang theory. After a while as a lawyer and teacher, he returned to the University of Chicago to pursue a doctorate in astronomy. During his studies, war I (1914-1918) began. Hubble enlisted within the army and rose to the rank of major.

After the war, Hubble worked at Wilson Observatory, California, which then contained the most important telescope within the world. within the early 1920s, scientists knew about our own galaxy, the Milky Way , but they didn't known if anything was outside of it. Some had conjectured that nebulae, faint cloudy features within the night sky, were actually “island universes” or other galaxies. Hubble measured the space to a number of these nebulas and located that they indeed lay far outside the Milky Way . In further studies, he showed that these nebulas are literally other galaxies, and he went on to classify them.

The ‘Synodic Period’

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Star

The sun rotates on its axis during a period of about 25 1/3 days, but because the Earth within the meantime has moved a long way round the sun, the time of rotation (known as the synodic period) appears to us to be about 27 ½ days. This rotation period applies only to the regions near the Sun’s equator.

46,00,00,00,000 years ago

The whole solar system including our earth, planets, and moon were formed from a single mass made of gases and dust called nebula. About 4,60,00,00,000 years ago nebula began to shrink thanks to gravitation force and pulled objects together. As it continued to shrink, the nebula began to spin and center portion became the sun, remaining gases and dust in the rings gathered and solid bodies were formed which were the planets. The earth was a hot fire ball at her origin, and no oxygen in it’s atmosphere, and no ozonosphere .

My view about this post (Conclusion)

Information on how star Energy generates information is provided by hand Albrecht Bethe. This post provides Galaxy Relative Information. It is given Whether the constellation was born and where the star nebula was born. They are said to have died and how many stars they are. Who found out that the universe is expanding and there is also information about it. Everything that has been measured 46000000000 Years ago began to compress the force of gravity.

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