our neighbouring planet, Roving vehicle on Mars, A man-made miracle!, Rockets-A flight from the world to space, Voyager 1 & 2 (1979), Human in Space, How was the sundial invented?, Dr. VIKRAM SARABHAI

Life from Mars, our neighbouring planet
Galaxy interesting facts

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Scientists have found strong evidence suggesting that primitive life forms existed on Mars over three and a half billion years ago this comes from studying an outsized meteorite fragment in Antarctica, Known to possess come from Mars. Mineral features indicating biological activity and fossils of primitive organisms were found inside the meteorite.

Vehicle on Mars

Pathfinder, a us guided missile , has landed on Mars and released a vehicle, sojourner, to explore the surface. Sojourner is controlled by an Earth-based operator, who uses images obtained by cameras on both pathfinder and Sojourner to manoeuvre over the rocky terrain. Pathfinder landed on Mars on 4 July, bounced several times, then rolled, before coming to rest. Two days later the six wheeled Sojourner removed onto the Martian surface. One reason for the mission is to demonstrate the feasibility of low cost landing on Mars.

A man-made miracle!

Satellite is an object that orbits around a planet. There are two sorts of satellites, natural and artificial. The Moon may be a natural satellite of the world . Humans have made the miracle in space in sort of artificial satellites. Satellites are launched by rockets in space. There are four sorts of such satellites geosynchronous at 36000 KM height from the Earth’s surface, orbital period is same because the Earth’s rotation then used for communication and whether forecasting polar used for research, sun-synchronous orbital period is same because the rotation period of the Sun (30 days) and used for solar research and Low Earth orbiting at 200-2000 Km height and used for space exploration, remote sensing, etc.

(9,8 ………0)Rockets-A flight from the Earth to space
Galaxy interesting facts

Rockets are launching vehicles which carry payload with them to place it within the orbit outside the Earth’s atmosphere. Rockets were discovered in China, Chinese used the rockets in wars. in fact those rockets weren't like today’s modern vehicle but they were like our Diwali Rockets. Rockets are basic tools for space exploration. Rockets usually work on Newton’s laws of motion and aerodynamic laws. There are many sorts of rockets like solid propellant, plasma propellant, nuclear propellant, plasma propellant, etc. Depending upon the propellant, rockets are being fabricated. Now humans are thinking to possess bases on Moon and Mars.

Discovery of water on Mars have made these efforts more rapid. Finally the most objective of achieving the speed of 11.2 KM/S should be fulfilled, which makes rocket and payload to travel beyond Earth’s gravity field. Today’s rockets are multistage rockets and far more efficient in their space flight. To look after India’s space programme, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was formed under Dept. of Atomic Energy on 15 August 1969. Since 1972, ISRO is under Dept. of Space. It has developed many rockets which are  capable to put payloads weighing more than 1500 KG in space.

Voyager 1 & 2 (1979)

In 1979 two us space porbes, Voyager I and II had flown past Jupiter, sending back photographs of the earth and its larger moons. Voyager I sent back dramatic images showing that Jupiter has a minimum of three distinct rings, which appear to be composed of fine dust grains. It also took photographs of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. Voyager II made a close observation of Jupiter’s atmosphere and its large moons. Both probes had used Jupiter’s gravity to assist propel them on track to Saturn, their next destination.

Human in Space

Galaxy interesting facts
Human in Space

Humans have tried to make their existence outside the world in space. Some years back, within the last century, humans have first tried to place their winning foot on the Moon and then a series of experiments are administered to form the settlement on other planets also. Moon and Mars are the simplest thought candidates for this purpose. the entire journey started with the dog Lyka within the space and therefore the experiment was administered by soviet union. Yuri Gagarin became the first person to go in space on 12 April 1961, he spent 1 hour 48 minutes in the space. America’s Neel Armstrong became the first person to reach the Moon. and today Sunita Williams has the record of maximum space walks and maximum hours spent within the space. Now humans are thinking to possess bases on Moon and Mars. Discovery of water on Mars have made these efforts more rapid. Our nearest neighbour Moon remains unexplored in some sense. ISRO is sending its first spacecraft Chandrayaan on Moon to unravel its mysteries and every one hope that results of Chandrayaan will certainly create a replacement history.

A myth or a scientific phenomenon

Solar Eclipse: eclipse Occurs when the Sun, the Moon and therefore the Earth are lined up and Moon’s shadow falls on the world . The Moon interrupts the sunshine of the Sun falling on the world , the effect becomes very significant because distance between the world and therefore the Moon is far but that of the Sun. This happens once or twice during a year during a particular region so therein sense this event is extremely rare. This eclipse occurs on a replacement moon day.

Lunar Eclipse: eclipse occurs when the Sun, the world and therefore the refore the Moon are lined up and the Moon is roofed with the Earth’s shadow. This eclipse occurs on full-of-the-moon night.

It the entire shadow of Earth or Moon is in eclipse then t is understood as Umbra and if partial shadow is there then it's referred to as Penumbra.

How was the sundial invented?

The Sundial was probably devised by people that noticed that shadows change length and direction during the day. As a result, early man developed the shadow stick, which over a period of your time was developed into the sundial.

Hole in the ozone layer confirmed

In march, 1985 British Antarctic Survey detected a hole within the ozonosphere over Antarctica for the primary time. Like a protective shield 24-40 Kilometres (15-25 miles) above Earth, the ozne layer (ozone is a type of oxygen) blocks out the Sun’s ultraviolet rays, which can cause skin cancer. Discovery of the hole confirms that release of chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); used in aerosols, refrigerators and air-conditioning, is destroying the ozone and letting in deadly ultraviolet rays. This is a rapdly growing environmental concern.


Galaxy interesting facts
Dr. Vikram Sarabhai

Born : 12 August 1919
He is considered the Father of the Indian space program

  • Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai was an Indian physicist. he's considered the daddy of the Indian program . Many Indians consider him to be a national hero.
  • Vikram Sarabhai was born in Ahmedabad to an affluent, business family. He was one among eight children of Sarla Devi and Ambalal Sarabhai.
  • After his studies at the Gujarat College at Ahmedabad, he thought of getting to England for higher studies in Physics. In 1937, he left for England and joined St. John’s College, Cambridge University. Where he received his undergraduate degree in 1940. In 1943, when he was just 23, Vikram went up the Himalayan mountains
  • After his studies at the Gujarat College at Ahmedabad, he thought of getting to England for higher studies in Physics. In 1937, he left for England and joined St. John’s College, Cambridge University. Where he received his undergraduate degree in 1940. In 1943, when he was just 23, Vikram went up the Himalayan mountains to conduct experiments on cosmic rays. He was awarded phD. by the Cambridge University in 1947 for his studies on the subject.
  • The establishment of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was one among his greatest achievements IIMA too.He successfully convinced the govt. of the importance of a neighborhood programme for a developing country like India after the Russian, Sputnik launch.
  • Dr. Bhabha supported Dr. Sarabhai in fixing the primary rocket firing station in India. This center was established at Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the coast of the Arabian Sea .
  • Dr. Sarabhai started a project for the fabrication and launch of all Indian Satellite. As a result, the first Indian satellite, Aryabhata. was put in orbit in 1975 from a Russian Cosmodrome.
  • Dr. sarabhai awarded Bhatnagar Medal (1962), Padma Bhushan (1966), and Padma Vibhushan posthumous [1972].

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