What is an ecosystem?

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An ecosystem is a distinct area in the biosphere, includes the rocks and soil underneath the ground, the surface of the ground, and the air above it. It contains several habitats. A forest is an example of an ecosystem. The largest ecosystems, such as rainforests and deserts, are called biomes. An ecosystem can be as small as a drop of rainwater on a leaf, or as large as an ocean. Both have different characteristics from the surrounding area, and both contain groups of living things, which interact with each other. A single tree and a huge forest are also ecosystems.

Seaweed benefits

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Seaweed benefit is the large marine algae that grow in the ocean. There are about 10500 species of seaweeds. They photosynthesize and produce food with the help of sunlight. According to their pigment that absorbs light of particular wavelength. Their colors are green, brown or red. Red and brown algae are almost exclusively marine and have additional pigments for photosynthesize in little light. The green algae are common in freshwater and in terrestrial situations. Brown seaweeds can be yellow-brown to dark olive. Red seaweeds range from pink, purple, red and brown to nearly black. They provide home and food for many different sea animals, lend beauty to the underwater landscape and are directly valuable to ma as a food and industrial raw material.

Ocean of the world information

Penguins are birds

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Penguins are flightless bird with black and white feathers. They spend the maximum amount as 75% of their time underwater, checking out for food within the ocean. When they are within the water, they dive and flap their wings. It looks just like they are flying. Their shape of body and short wings helps in swimming with average speed in the water about 15 miles per hour. Their short legs give them odd walk. Penguins cannot breathe underwater but hold their breath for a long time. Penguins rub oil from a gland onto their feathers to assist make them waterproof and windproof. There are 17 types of penguins live in Antarctica and cool portion of coasts of Africa and New Zealand. They live in nesting colonies and build a nest on ground with mud and vegetation. They return to same place, same nest and same partner every year. They are the only bird that can swim but cannot fly.


Dolphins are small toothed whales, which are found in the oceans of all over the world except polar region. There are 33 species of oceanic dolphins. Dolphins have teeth in their mouth to catch fish and squids. Dolphins do not chew their food, they swallow it whole instead. Every dolphin has its own whistle which other dolphin recognizes. They don’t need water to drink. In the dark, fatty area the head spends out clicks that echo tells dolphin where the object is. The biggest dolphin is the killer whale calves are about 8 feet long at birth and can grow to over 20 feet long. Bottle nose dolphins are very playful and they can hold their breath for about 10 minutes. Dolphins breathe through a single blowhole on the top of their head. The shape of dolphin’s mouth makes it look like it is always smilling.

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They are not fish. They cannot swim but they have very good crawling. They have flattened body with arms which are very flexible and made up of lots of tin spines that can move in any direction. Starfish breathe through their feet an tiny tubes that are found on all over their bodies. Starfish use their tube feet to hand on to the shell of mussels, clams or oysters while pulling the two halves of the shell apart. As soon as a gap opens, starfish extend their stomach into the shell to digest the ocean life inside. Crown of thorns starfish are unique ocean life that are well known for eating corals.

Sea Turtle

A sea turtle is a reptile with big bony shell covers on its body except head and legs. Its flat, smooth shape lets a turtle surge through the water at speed as high as 65 Km/h. There are seven species of sea turtles. All are endangered. Leather back turtles can be 2 m long and have leathery skin instead of bony scale on top of their shell. A snake-neck turtle’s neck is as long as its body. Hinge-back and box turtles each have hinges on their shells that actually allow them to completely enter their shell by closing up the openings. Turtle do not have teeth. They have powerful bony back. When they are active, they come to ocean surface to breathe every few minutes and while resting, they can remain underwater for as long as 2 hours without breathing.

Sea Anemone

Although sea anemones appear as if flowers, they’re predatory animals. There invertebrates have no skeleton at all. They live attached to firm objects in the sea, usually the sea floor, rocks or coral. However, they can slide around very slowly. Sea anemones are long lived creatures. There are over 1000 species of anemones found in coastal waters worldwide. Sea anemones come in many shapes, size and colors. Radially symmetric, they have a columnar body with a single body opening, central portion the mouth, which is surrounded by tentacles. Sea anemones eat fish, mussels and worms. Anemones are usually about 2.510 cm across. Sea anemones spend most of their lives in one place. Some even bury themselves in the mud.

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This fish looks like a horse. However, seahorses are very different from other fish because they have no scales, no teeth and do not have a stomach. Seahorses can be as small as 16mm or as large as 35cm. seahorses swim with their head straight up. They rest often. They curl around the seaweed in the shallow ocean water. Seahorses are found in temperate and tropical water. A seahorse changes colour to blend in with their surroundings. They usually live in underwater sea grass meadows and among coral reefs. They feed on small living ocean life such as daphnia, Cyclops, larvae of water insects, small crustaceans, worms. There are 35 known types of seahorse around the world.


Sharks vary greatly in size and characteristics. There are about 375 species. The biggest sharks are whale sharks and the smallest sharks are the pygmy sharks. Whale sharks can be as long as 40 feet long, while pygmy sharks are about 6 inches long. Sharks have boneless skeleton of tough, elastic cartilage with streamlined bodies. They have a razor sharp teeth and huge jaws. Their skin is also covered with small pointed structure like teeth called dermal denticals. Sharks can smell injured animals and other food that is hundreds of yards away. They eat meat, fish, squids, shellfish and sea anemones. Mother sharks hides the eggs inside seaweeds, shells and rocks.

Shells for sea
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The shells for sea are empty home of small animals of mollusks group which have a soft body and no backbones. Many mollusks grow hard and protective shell on outside. The shell for sea of some mollusks are round and smooth, some are coiled into tight spirals or spread out like fan. Bivalves have two flatter shells that cover their whole body. Gastropods snails grow coiled shells and slide around on a slimy foot. Some mollusks spend their whole life buried in sand. Seashells occur in a great range of shapes, colors and size. One of the smallest seashell is pythina, calm size of a rice grain. Scientists generally agree that the shell of the mollusks in the most perfect example of adaptation to the animal need for security.

Squids giant    

Squids giant have stiff and horny support inside their bag like bodies. The head, with its large eyes and big brain is attached at the front of the body bag. They have eight long arms surrounded to the mouth with two tentacles. Squids feed mainly on fish. In the darkness of the deep sea, squids often use brightly colored light organs to signal to one another and dazzle attackers. Biologists estimate that there are as many as 500 species of squids. The common squid lives about one to 2 years. When being chases, many squids squirt a dark liquid to distract their attacker. Squids swim faster than any other invertebrate.

Octopus heart
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There are nearly 50 kind of octopus. The largest octopus can be longer than 9 meters and can weigh more than 68 Kg. No animal on Earth s better than the octopus at changing its appearance. In a flash, an octopus can change color, make it smooth or sprout spikes. They can make themselves look like a rock. They are very fast swimmers and ferocious predators with long 8 arms that can grab, suck and choke their prey very quickly. They like to eat fish, crabs, lobsters and mussels. They usually live alone amongst rocks on the bottom of ocean. There are suction cups undersides their arms which help them o climb over rocks and hold things.

Jelly fish

Jellyfish are not fish at all. A jelly has no bones, bran, heart, eyes and ears. They have a net or tentacles that contain poisonous and stinging cells. These cells can stun small animals which jelly fish the pulls into its mouth. There are about 200 kinds of jelly fish in different sizes and colors like transparent brown, pink, blue and white. They have a shape like umbrella. The mouth and stomach are in the middle of umbrella and simple muscles which are closing of umbrella help them to swim. They range in size from about 1 inch to 200 feet (61 meters) long. They have been drifting through the world’s oceans for more than 650 million years.

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